Medicine at Yale, 1960 -2010

1960 - 1970


Dorothy M. Horstmann, First Female Full Professor, 1961

During her distinguished career, Dorothy M. Horstmann (1911-2001) made significant contributions to science, education, and public health, especially to polio and rubella. Horstmann was born in Spokane, Washington, and received her B.A. degree in 1936 and her M.D. degree in 1940, both from the University of California. In 1942, she came to Yale as a Commonwealth Fellow in the Section of Preventive Medicine to work with John Rodman Paul. The following year, she joined the Yale poliomyelitis unit. In 1961, she became the first female full professor at the Yale School of Medicine. She became the John Rodman Paul Professor of Epidemiology in 1969. Among her many scientific achievements, she demonstrated that the polio virus reached the nervous system by way of the blood, a discovery that made polio vaccines possible. Later, Horstmann evaluated the oral vaccine program in Russia and studied the effectiveness of a rubella vaccine. She was elected to the National Academy of Sciences and also served as president of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

Photo by J.D. Levine.

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, 1961
Laboratory of Epidemiology and Public Health, 1964

The Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, established in 1961, combined the former Department of Public Health and the Section of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine of the Department of Internal Medicine. The first chair was Anthony M.-M. Payne.

The Laboratory of Epidemiology and Public Health (LEPH), designed by Philip Johnson of New York City and Douglas Orr of New Haven, was dedicated in April 1965. The ceremonies also marked the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the Department of Public Health at Yale. A separate Tercentennial exhibit in the Library Rotunda in August-September 2001 will feature the School of Public Health and the School of Nursing.

Yale Medicine, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1966

The first issue of Yale Medicine, Alumni Bulletin of the School of Medicine, was published in 1966. It succeeded the School of Medicine Alumni Bulletin, which began publication in 1954 and was edited single-handedly and anonymously by Arthur Ebbert, Associate Dean of Yale School of Medicine. Ebbert continued to edit the new publication until 1986. Issued three times a year, Yale Medicine is distributed to members of the Association of Yale Alumni in Medicine and faculty, students and friends of the School of Medicine. The current editor is Michael Fitzsousa, Director of Publications.

The caption to the cover photo of this first issue of Yale Medicine is: "The opportunity for a wide variety of experiences, including elective courses and research, has long been an important facet of the Yale program of medical education. Guidance from a faculty advisor…is now offered through the Student Advisory Council."

Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, 1966

The Laboratory of Clinical Investigation opened in 1966. Located on the corner of Howard and Davenport Avenues, this modern research facility provided much needed laboratory space for clinical investigation in both the Department of Medicine and Pediatrics, and marked the beginning of a new era in clinical investigation at Yale. During the administration of dean Rosenberg, the Laboratory was named for Vernon W. Lippard, dean of the Yale School of Medicine from 1952 to 1967.

Photo by Nick Zavalishin.

Connecticut Mental Health Center, 1966

The Connecticut Mental Health Center, a university affiliated facility of the Connecticut State Department of Mental Health, was dedicated in 1966. When Fredrick Redlich was chairman of the Department of Psychiatry at Yale in the 1950s, he and a group from the Connecticut Mental Health Association expressed their concern about the state of mental health to the newly elected governor Abraham Ribicoff. Following the meeting, a report Action for Mental Health prepared by a nationwide coalition of mental health care advocates resulted in the establishment of state-supported training and research centers. The Connecticut Mental Health Center, located on Park Street adjacent to the Medical Center, provides diagnostic services, treatment, and rehabilitation to patients suffering from a wide range of psychiatric disorders. It conducts research into mental illness, trains mental health personnel, and plays an active role in the development of comprehensive community mental health services for the greater New Haven area.

Fredrick Carl Redlich, Dean from 1967 to 1972

Born in Vienna in 1910, Fredrick Carl Redlich entered the Psychological Institute at the University of Vienna in 1928. He graduated with an M.D. degree in 1935 and, three years later, he came to the United States. In 1942, he accepted an instructorship in the Department of Psychiatry at Yale where he found the Institute of Human Relations especially stimulating. In 1950, Redlich was appointed professor and chair of the Department of Psychiatry. He believed that research and teaching in psychiatry should be based within the biological and behavioral sciences. During his tenure, the Yale Department of Psychiatry assumed a role of national leadership. In 1967, Redlich was appointed dean. Under his leadership, the school continued to grow: full-time faculty expanded by about 25%, the number of minority and women students increased significantly, the curriculum was revised, and five new departments were established. After stepping down as dean, Redlich became associate chief of staff for education at the Veterans Administration Medical Center in Brentwood, California. He became emeritus professor of psychiatry at the University of California, Los Angeles, in 1977.

Aerial View of the Medical School and Yale New-Haven Hospital, 1970


Physician Associate Program, 1970

The Yale Physician Associates Program was begun in 1970 under the Trauma Program of the Department of Surgery at Yale-New Haven Hospital. Its first class entered 30 years ago, in 1971. This and other early PA programs were founded in response to concern over the shortage and maldistribution of physicians. Initially a hospital-based certificate program, the PA program is now part of the Yale School of Medicine. Since 1999, its graduates have received master's degrees from Yale University. From 1973 to 2000 the Program has graduated 649 students.

This photograph of a PA student was taken in the 1970s.

Howard Levitin, Associate Dean for Student Affairs, 1970 to 1985

Howard Levitin served as associate dean for student affairs for close to twenty years. He received his M.D. degree from the University of Texas, Southwestern Medical School at Dallas in 1949. After postgraduate training, he joined the Yale Department of Internal Medicine in 1958. This new position in the Dean's office was created on recommendation of a faculty committee which proposed a major curriculum revision to be initiated with the class entering in 1968. The revision shortened the basic science and clinical periods periods of study to a year and a half each, leaving the fourth year open for electives and the thesis. When Thomas Forbes left the Dean's staff in 1970, Levitin was appointed Associate Dean for Student Affairs, a position he held until 1985. In 1986, he was appointed director of the Faculty Practice Plan. He is now Professor Emeritus of Medicine.


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